Lithuania
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currency: Lithuanian litas (LTL)
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Lithuania profile
fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits
Lithuania history
Lithuanian lands were united under MINDAUGAS in 1236;

over the next century, through alliances and conquest, Lithuania extended its territory to include most of present-day Belarus and Ukraine.

By the end of the 14th century Lithuania was the largest state in Europe.

An alliance with Poland in 1386 led the two countries into a union through the person of a common ruler.

In 1569, Lithuania and Poland formally united into a single dual state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

This entity survived until 1795 when its remnants were partitioned by surrounding countries.

Lithuania regained its independence following World War I but was annexed by the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries.

On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow).

The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993.

Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions;

it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
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Conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania

Conventional short form: Lithuania

Local long form: Lietuvos Respublika

Local short form: Lietuva

Formerly known as: Soviet Socialist Republic
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Lithuania's capital city is Vilnius
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Lithuania Constitution:

adopted 25 October 1992;
last amended 25 April 2006
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Lithuania population growth rate: -0.278%
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Lithuania highest point: Aukstojas 294 m
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Lithuania lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
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About 45% of Lithuania's land is arable.
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Nemunas River is the Longest River in Lithuania
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Lithuania birth rate is 9 births/1,000 population
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Lithuania infant mortality rate is 6 deaths/1,000 live births
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Lithuania fertility rate is 1.28 children born/woman
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Lithuania climate:
transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers
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Top 10 cities of Lithuania with populations (2012 est.) are:
1. Vilnius: 542,932
2. Kaunas: 336,912
3. Klaipėda: 177,812
4. Šiauliai: 120,969
5. Panevėžys: 109,028
6. Alytus: 63,642
7. Marijampolė: 44,885
8. Mažeikiai: 38,819
9. Jonava: 33,172
10. Utena: 31,139
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Lithuania ethnic groups:

Lithuanian - 84%
Polish - 6.1%
Russian - 4.9%
Belarusian - 1.1%
Other or unspecified - 3.9%
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Lithuania Exports:

mineral products
machinery and equipment
chemicals
textiles
foodstuffs
plastics
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Lithuania Imports:

mineral products
machinery and equipment
transport equipment
chemicals
textiles and clothing
metals
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unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats; 71 members elected in single-member districts, 70 elected by proportional representation; members to serve four-year terms)

Administrative Divisions:
There are 10 counties (apskritys, singular - apskritis).
They are:
1. Alytaus
2. Kauno
3. Klaipedos
4. Marijampoles
5. Panevezio
6. Siauliu 7. Taurages
8. Telsiu
9. Utenos
10. Vilniaus
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Party (KP) - Gediminas VAGNORIUS
Civil Democracy Party (PDP) - Algimantas MATULEVICIUS
Democratic Labor and Unity Party (DDVP) - Kristina BRAZAUSKIENE
Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles (LLRA) - Valdemar TOMASEVSKI
Emigrants Party (EP) - Juozas MURAUSKAS
Homeland Union-Lithuanian Christian Democrats (TS-LKD) - Andrius KUBILIUS
Labor Party (DP) - Viktor USPASKICH
Liberal and Center Union (LCS) - Arturas MELIANAS
Liberal Movement (LS or LRLS) - Eligijus MASIULIS
Lithuanian People's Party (LLP) - Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE
Lithuanian People's Party (LZP) - Joana SIMANAUSKIENE
Lithuanian Russian Union (LRS) - Sergejus DMITRIJEVAS
Lithuanian Social Democratic Party (LSDP) - Algirdas BUTKEVICIUS
Nationalist Union (TS) - Gintaras SONGAILA
Order and Justice Party (TT) - Rolandas PAKSAS
Peasant and Greens Union (LVZS) - Ramunas KARBAUSKIS
Republican Party (RP) - Valdemaras VALKIUNAS
Russian Alliance (RA) - Tamara LOCHANKINA
Socialist People's Front (SLF) - Algirdas PALECKIS
Way of Courage (DK) - Jonas VARKALA
YES-Homeland Revival and Perspective (YES Union or TAIP Union or TAIP) - Arturas ZUOKAS
Young Lithuania Party (PJL) - Stanislovas BUSKEVICIUS